Nitrogen pollution: causes and consequences
At national and global levels, ecological boundaries are being overstepped due to the extent and intensity of nitrogen inputs into the environment. This results in serious environmental issues caused by reactive nitrogen compounds in a variety of areas. These include: impacts on air quality caused by nitrogen dioxide, ammonia and the formation of particulate matter; nitrate pollution of groundwater; loss of biodiversity caused by eutrophication (excessive nutrient build-up) and acidification of ecosystems; and, finally, climate change caused by nitrous oxide emissions. These environmental impacts endanger health, hamper quality of life and are associated with high costs for individual businesses and for the economy as a whole. Changes are necessary in key areas of the economy and life, including transport, agriculture, energy and consumption, in order to permanently reduce nitrogen emissions into the water, air and soil.
Raising awareness and taking action
The information the public receives about nitrogen-related pollution is often limited or delayed because of nitrogen’s complex and subtle impacts. Because of this, the overall nitrogen issue receives little public attention despite its urgency and far-reaching consequences. The public must be informed about the consequences of excessive nitrogen emissions and be motivated to take action to reduce nitrogen inputs in order to build support for current and future policy measures.
In Germany, many measures have already been taken in air quality control, water control and soil protection in order to reduce nitrogen inputs. In sum, these measures have yet to reduce emissions sufficiently. The reach, stringent implementation and coherence of the various instruments are not yet adequate. This is also one of the reasons that Germany is facing EU infringement proceedings and pilot procedures due to excessive nitrate levels in water bodies and excessive nitrogen oxide and ammonia emissions in the air.
Building blocks of an integrated nitrogen reduction strategy
In order to effectively reduce nitrogen emissions, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB) is using the approach of a national nitrogen reduction strategy. This is a systematic policy that takes an integrated strategic approach in order to understand and solve the problem, in its entirety, using the combined efforts of all stakeholders. A detailed summary report, building on dialogue with experts, the various levels of government, industry representatives and the public, was drawn up on the initiative and under the lead responsibility of the BMUB and was adopted on 31 May 2017 by the German cabinet.